The 9th Global Conference on Materials Science
and Engineering (CMSE2020)

General Info.

Kiev, the capital and largest city of Ukraine, is located in the north central part of Ukraine on the Dnieper River. Kiev covers an area of 839 sq. km and has a population of 2.93 million. The city probably existed as a commercial center as early as the 5th century, making it one of the oldest cities in Eastern Europe. During the country's transformation to a market economy and electoral democracy, Kiev has continued to be Ukraine's major administrative, cultural and scientific center.

The city limits enclose an area of 324 square miles (839 square km) on both banks of the Dnieper. It is divided into a number of administrative wards. The focus of Kiev is the area of the ancient Upper Town, crowning the high bluffs of the Dnieper. Although largely of postwar construction, this central area retains its old street pattern, and most of the surviving historical and architectural monuments are located there. First among these is the cathedral of St. Sophia, now a museum. It was built in the 11th century and remains, despite certain Baroque modifications in the 18th century, one of the finest and most beautiful examples of early Rus-Byzantine ecclesiastical architecture. It has a nave and four aisles and is crowned by five domes. The interior is magnificently decorated with frescoes and mosaics; it contains the tomb of Yaroslav I, the grand prince of Kiev during whose reign the cathedral was built.
Climate
Kiev has a moderately continental climate. The average January temperature is 21 °F (−6 °C), and winter days with temperatures above freezing are not uncommon; in cold spells with a northerly or northeasterly airstream, temperatures may drop sharply, and an absolute minimum of −27 °F (−33 °C) has been recorded. Snow cover lies usually from mid-November to the end of March; the frost-free period lasts 180 days on average but in some years surpasses 200 days. Summers are warm, with a July average of 68 °F (20 °C) and a recorded maximum of 102 °F (39 °C). The mean annual precipitation is 25 inches (635 mm), with maximum rainfall in June and July.

Currency
The official currency of Ukraine is the Hryvnia (UAH). There are one hundred kopiykas for one hryvnia (UAH). There are bills for 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 hryvnias. Coins are for 1, 2, 5, 10, 25 and 50 kopiykas. Hryvnia can be easily converted to hard currency in any authorized bank of Ukraine or in numerous currency exchange offices.

US dollars and Euros are the easiest currency to exchange in Ukraine. You should only use official exchange booths and make sure you’re given a receipt.

Language
The state language of Ukraine is Ukrainian. Russian is widely spoken, especially in eastern and southern Ukraine. Most native Ukrainian speakers know Russian as a second language. Ukrainian is mainly spoken in western and central Ukraine. In central Ukraine, Ukrainian and Russian are both equally used in cities, with Russian being more common in Kiev.

Transportation
Transportation for the industries and for the city as a whole is provided by a good network. Trunk railways and all-weather roads link Kiev to Moscow in Russia, to Kharkiv and the Donets Basin in eastern Ukraine, to southern Ukraine and the port of Odessa, and to western Ukraine and Poland. The navigability of the Dnieper has been improved by a series of barrages and reservoirs. Boryspil International Airport operates direct flights to many Ukrainian towns and international service to major cities throughout Europe, Asia, and North America. Within Kiev itself there is efficient subway and rail, bus, streetcar, and trolleybus service.

Health and Education
The city is well provided with health facilities, including general and specialized hospitals and local polyclinics, the latter serving residential neighbourhoods. A number of nursery schools and day-care centres care for children below school age. In addition to numerous primary schools, there are a large number of general secondary schools, evening schools for adults, and specialist technical schools. The Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv (Kyiv University) heads an array of institutions of higher education. A range of research establishments are run by the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, which also maintains a large library. Kiev is noted for medical and cybernetic research.